IOT REFERENCE FRAMEWORK

IoT Reference Framework

A 10-layered IoT Reference Framework, shown here in the slide deck below, is a base framework, which is intended to be used as a foundational input to developing specific applications, architectures or frameworks. For instance, it is an input to the development of an IoT Security Framework for the IoT Alliance Australia. Some of these potential applications are explained in the slide deck.

To get an idea of how to use this 10-layered IoT Reference Framework, each of the menu item below walks you through layer by layer.

Industry & Solution

Industry & Solution

Purpose

This section is intended to provide the user of the framework a way to frame their solution context. IoT solutions could belong to any of the industry identified here, for example: Smart Cities, Health Care, Agriculture, Manufacturing, Automotive, Transportation, Education, Utilities, and so on.

Guidance

For each industry, provides context to the solution by considering the followings and how each one would affect, or impact the way a solution is developed.:

  • Industry - what industry sector your solution services? how big is the industry in terms of market capital, what's the potential market where you compete
  • Legals - what regulations, policies your solution has to adhere to?
  • Criticality and Security - if the industry sector is a critical infrastructure, or your solution provides mission critical services, how do you comply?
  • Ecosystem - Who will be collaborating with you in delivering your IoT solution
  • Solution to a problem - What challenges the industry faces, and what problems your solution is trying to solve

Industry

SMART CITIES

Solutions include Connected Street Lighting, Smart Bin, Smart Parking, Smart Parks, Smart Building, etc. There’s no one definition of what a Smart City includes, and it’s really up to each city to define its own Smart City Framework, one that suits a city’s best interests.

AGRICULTURE

Solutions in this category could include anything from farming, to livestock to aquaculture. Typical solutions today include temperature and humidity sensing, soil moisture sensing, and so on.

HEALTHCARE

Smart Healthcare solutions covers anything from family healthcare, community health, personal care to age care, and disability. Typical solutions includes in-home age care, tracking for disability and dementia clients.

TRANSPORT

Anything from traffic, road condition, vehicle to vehicle/X, drone, intelligent transport system, etc.

UTILITY

Definition of this industry includes Gas, Water, Electricity, alternative Energy, etc. Examples of Utility solutions Smart Water leakage detection and monitoring.

MANUFACTURING

Manufacturing has been pioneering M2M, or IoT for quite sometimes with automation in their manufacturing process, and this trend will continue, especially under the umbrella term Industry 4.0

EDUCATION

Probably a ripe area for disruption, though solutions in this sector are more the result of enabling smarter digital solutions, rather than a direct implementation of IoT solution.

ENTERTAINMENT & SOCIAL

Evidently seen more from the children sector with devices that can track a child movement and or activities. Solutions of this type involves social and/or entertainment factor.

 

Solution & Service Provider

Solution and Service Provider

Purpose

This layer is intended to show the business aspects of an IoT solution. In particular, all the stakeholders involved in supplying and operating the solution. This includes solution owner, all ecosystem providers such as network, services, platform and device providers.

Guidance

Include the following stakeholders in your description, using this framework

  • IoT device and sensors suppliers - Who are your device partners?
  • Network providers - Do you build and operate your own network (eg. LoRaWAN, Sigfox), or do you buy connectivity from a network provider?
  • Platform provider - Do you build your own IoT platform, or do you use platform provider who provides SaaS such as Analytics, device management, storage, Visualisation, Applications, and so on?
  • Service provider - Do you use any other service providers such as a managed service, Security, etc?

IoT User

IoT User

Purpose

IoT User – This stack identifies the type of IoT users that interacts directly or indirectly with the IoT Solution. Users can be categorised as Primary or Secondary. Primary users are IoT solution owners which act upon the information produced by the solution. Secondary users are such as those who operate and manage the solution, or have a business interest in the solution. The type of users of course varies depending on each IoT use case. .

Guidance

Include the following stakeholders in your description, using this framework

  • IoT device and sensors suppliers - Who supplies your devices?
  • Network providers - Do you use a LPWAN network connectivity provider?
  • Platform provider - This could be a cloud platform provider who provides services such as Analytics, device management, storage, Visualisation, Applications, etc
  • Service provider - Do you run your operation? or outsource it to someone elese? Who provides network integration and support? and may be other services such as security

IoT User Interface

IoT User Interface

Purpose

IoT User Interface – is by definition, enables users to 'interface' to, or 'interact' with the IoT solution. This layer highlights that an IoT solution should be designed to allow user interaction with the solution

Guidance

Often, the UI is a combination of hardware and software applications. UI could be commercially available ‘smart’ devices such as smart phone, tablet, computer, Headset Mounted Display, or HMD, as commonly used in AR/VR applications. There could also be purposedly designed devices, such as those found in industrial applications.

Appplication Enablement

Application Enablement

Purpose

The Application Enablement stack refers to foundational functions and services that are necessary, in most cases, to create value from the solution

Guidance

Some of the foundational functions and services are

  • Rule engine & event management
  • User Interface Security
  • Data Encryption Support
  • Developer Support, SDK
  • API enabler
  • Web and Mobile Application building and enablement
  • Data Visualisation Support
  • Endpoint Specific API
  • Endpoint Sepcific SDK
  • and so on

This Application Enablement layer is commonly referred to as IoT Platform in the industry

Intelligence Enablement

Intelligence Enablement

Purpose

The Intelligence Enablement layer, is a term coined by Infyra , to describe the use of technologies such as Analytics, Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning, Deep Learning, Block Chain, and so on, in IoT solutions. As the name of the layer suggests, the key to create value for business through the use of emerging technologies to enable informed decision making, business process automation, to improve productivity and increase efficiency.

Guidance

Some of the functions in the Intelligence Enablement layer are

  • Data Storage, ETL, and Analytics
  • Streaming Analytics
  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Machine Learning & and Deep Learning
  • Blockchain
  • Device Simulation
Connection Management

Connection Management

Purpose

The Connection Management stack consists of a set of the IoT Core functions, which refer to the management of networks, protocols, device/gateway management, ID management, User Authentication, etc.

This layer is also often referred to as IoT Platform.

Guidance

Typical Connection Management functions include, but not limited to:

  • Device Registration & Connection support
  • Device Configuration support
  • Device authentication
  • Device Identity Management
  • Device SIM Management
  • VPN Support
  • DNS Support
  • protocol support MQTT/s, HTTP/s, CoAP/s, SSL, SSH, TSL
  • Load balancing and Routing support
  • REST API support
  • OTA - Over The Air update support
Connectivity

Connectivity

Purpose

The Connectivity Network stack provides the connection between end-point/gateway devices and IoT core platforms. Connectivity technologies include Bluetooth, WiFi, NFC, RFID, Ethernet, 6LoPAN, LoRaWAN, Sigfox, 3G/4G LTE, LTE-M (Cat-M1), NB-IoT (Cat-NB1) and other proprietary radio technologies; This layer should also represent Access Network for IoT client devices which could be WiFi, Ethernet, and or 3G/4G LTE..

Guidance

Connecitivity technologies are categorised into

  • Wired - such as Modbus, Ethernet, Powerline, etc
  • WPAN (Wireless Personal Area Network) – Bluetooth, 6LoWPAN, RFID, NFC, Z-Wavw, ZigBee, wireless USB, etc
  • WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network) – WiFI, DECT
  • LPWAN (Low Power WAN) - Sigfox, LoRaWAN, Cat-M1, Cat-NB1, Weightless-P, etc.
  • WWAN (Wireless Wide Area Network) – GPRS, 3G, 4G, LTE, CAT-1, 5G, etc.
IoT Gateway

IoT Gateway

Purpose

The IoT Gateway stack represents 1) the aggregation point for a group of sensors and actuators to coordinate the connectivity of these devices to each other and to an external network such as a connectivity network; 2) a protocol gateway that performs protocol conversion between devices and the core platform; and/or 3) a Edge Computing Device that can perform analytics, make time sensitive decision, enforce security, etc. Particularly relevant for meshed network types.

IoT Endpoint

IoT Endpoint

Purpose

An IoT Endpoint can be defined as a data measurement/collection point (in a device) such as a sensor. An IoT device can have one or more endpoints.

IoT Endpoints in this context refer to IoT devices, which can be a very simple sensor, to a smart device with more than one sensors; or a very complex 'thing' that can have multiple endpoints and perform complex data measurement functions, such as those in an autonomous car.

Participation

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